Once the video stream is transported to the target
Software players have cost and accessibility advantages.
destination, it needs to be decoded for the display device.
There are a number of decoder options that contribute
latencies that range from under 20 milliseconds to several
hundreds of milliseconds or longer, including:
• Software players
• Set-top boxes
• Dedicated hardware decoders
They are often free and allow viewing live video on a range of
screens. The trade off is increased and inconsistent decode
latency and reliance on CPU/computer configurations.
Set-top boxes (STBs) provide simple user interfaces and
are available at very low cost. Because STBs are based on
commonly available low cost ASIC technology and cater to
a wide variety of formats, they have higher latency than
dedicated hardware decoders.
Dedicated hardware decoders provide the lowest possible
latency, and are designed for use in high-performance,
Haivision’s Makito X decoders offer dual-channel HD
digital video to 3G-SDI and HDMI interfaces, supporting all
HD standards up to 1080p60. When paired with Haivision
Makito X encoders, they form the endpoints of an ultra-high
performance, low latency video delivery ecosystem.
When transporting video across the internet, there are a
number of factors that cause latency. Designers can opt for
dedicated networks (MPLS) which allow for the provisioning
of the necessary bandwidth to ensure Quality of Service
(QoS). However, if cost is a factor, transporting across the
public internet is preferred. Using the public internet,
however, can be challenging and you’ll need to plan for:
Packet Loss: In order to send video data across the
internet, the encoder sends the compressed video within
very small IP packets that are sent across the network.
When faced with congestion, the network may have to drop
packets as the video passes through. If packets are lost, the
video quality will be compromised as the decoder does
not have all of the information with which to rebuild the
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